Diacerein is a symptomatic slow-acting drug in osteoarthritis with anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic properties on cartilage and synovial membrane. It has also recently been shown to have protective effects against subchondral bone remodeling.
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Generic Estrace is used for treating conditions due to menopause (eg, hot flashes; vaginal itching, burning, or dryness), treating vulval or vaginal atrophy, and preventing osteoporosis (brittle bones). It is also used for estrogen replacement therapy after failure of the ovaries and to relieve the symptoms of breast cancer.
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People use melatonin to adjust the body's internal clock. It is used for jet lag, for adjusting sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work schedule changes (shift-work disorder), and for helping blind people establish a day and night cycle. Melatonin is also used for the inability to fall asleep (insomnia); delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS); rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD); insomnia associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); insomnia due to certain high blood pressure medications called beta-blockers; and sleep problems in children with developmental disorders including autism, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disabilities. It is also used as a sleep aid after discontinuing the use of benzodiazepine drugs and to reduce the side effects of stopping smoking. Some people use melatonin for Alzheimer's disease or memory loss (dementia), bipolar disorder, a lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), insomnia caused by beta-blocker drugs, endometriosis, ringing in the ears, depression or seasonal affective disorder (SAD), mild mental impairment, nonalcoholic liver disease, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, an inflammatory disease called sarcoidosis, schizophrenia, migraine and other headaches, age-related vision loss, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bone loss (osteoporosis), a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD), acid reflux disease, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), exercise performance, infertility, epilepsy, aging, for menopause, metabolic syndrome, for recovery after surgery, agitation caused by anesthesia, stress, involuntary movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia), changes in heart rate when you move from laying down to sitting up (postural tachycardia syndrome), delirium, inability to control urination, jaw pain, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis), and for birth control. Daily nighttime melatonin reduces blood pressure in male patients with essential hypertension. Taking melatonin leads to an average reduction in total cholesterol.
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Alfacalcidol is an active metabolite of Vitamin D, which performs important functions in regulation of the calcium balance and the bone metabolism. Alfacalcidol is Vitamin D-hormone analog which is activated by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase in the liver for systemic and in osteoblasts for local D-hormone actions. It possesses a unique pattern of pleiotropic effects on, e.g. gut, bone, pararthyroids, muscle and brain. Alfacalcidol is superior to plain vitamin D (cholecalciferol) because the final kidney activation of the latter is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism. Although alfacalcidol is widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis, its mechanism of action in bone is not fully understood. Alfacalcidol stimulates intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption, increases urinary Ca excretion and serum Ca levels, and suppresses parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion.
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Generic Premarin is used for treating certain symptoms of menopause (eg, hot flashes, vaginal dryness or itching). It is used to prevent osteoporosis (weak bones) after menopause in certain patients. It is also used in certain patients to treat low estrogen levels, prostate cancer or breast cancer.
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